Abbreviations: ATIs: amylase and trypsin enzyme inhibitors HFD: high-fat diet HPA axis: hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis IAP: intestinal alkaline phosphatase (aka alkaline phosphatase) IL1-β: interleukin 1 beta LPSs: lipopolysaccharides NF-kB: nuclear factor kappa B PUFAs: polyunsaturated fatty acids TLRs: toll-like receptors TLR4: toll-like receptor 4 TNF-α: tumor necrosis factor alpha WGA: wheat germ agglutinin Today I Read More →

Colon Anatomy

  This is a short post about an intriguing study done in rodents to assess what effect different polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have on progression of ulcerative colitis (UC). (1) Ulcerative colitis is defined by Taber’s medical dictionary as: “An inflammatory bowel disease marked pathologically by continuous inflammation of the intestinal mucosa, which typically involves Read More →

Dancer

  Welcome back from your intermission! It’s now time to begin act two of our inflammatory-cortisol ballet. In the first act we saw what happens when cortisol is low, as in adrenal insufficiency, and what occurs when cortisol is high, as in Cushing’s syndrome. But it’s now time to introduce the other members of our Read More →

bigstock

  “Ignorance is preferable to error, and he is less remote from the truth who believes nothing than he who believes what is wrong.” Thomas Jefferson     Abbreviations: BCM7: beta-casomorphin-7 C. albicans: Candida albicans FOS: fructooligosaccharide GERD: gastroesophageal reflux disease GI: gastrointestinal H. pylori: Helicobacter pylori, aka Campylobacter pylori IBS: irritable bowel syndrome LES: Read More →

  I consider bacterial translocation from the gut, aka, metabolic endotoxemia, the key to understanding chronic conditions like diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Gut pathogens and large food molecules that breach the gut wall provoke inflammatory immune responses that negatively impact the liver and other organs throughout the body, including the brain. For those of you Read More →